Volume 2 Number 1

This 3rd edition which has 8 articles on topics such as; Continuing Formal Education, Stress and Coping Strategies; and The Effects of Stigma on Mental Health Nurses, just to mention a few, promises to be educative.

Volume 2 Number 1

These articles highlights various health issues of concern about the education, training and practice of nursing and midwifery in Ghana

Continuing Formal Education for Non-Professional Nurses in Ghana: Exploring the Motivational Factors


Non - professional nurses are trained to assist professional nurses to perform their duties.  In – service training programmes are designed to augment the knowledge of these nursing assistants in the profession, but they yearn to pursue continuing formal education to upgrade their professional and academic qualification. The purpose of this study was to find out factors that motivate non  -  professional  nurses  to  continue  their  education. The  qualitative  exploratory descriptive design was employed to explore the experiences of non–professional  nurses  with  continuing  formal  education.  Twenty  three  (23) participants were purposively selected for the study, and a semi-structured interview guide with open - ended questions was used in gathering data from December 2016 to January 2017.  The findings from the study indicated that non–professional nurses are motivated to continue their education because they had low academic qualifications, lacked professional competencies, were self-determined to progress in life, their employers recognized a higher academic qualification than several years of working experience and they were practicing outside their job descriptions. The study concludes that staff development plans should be designed by employers and educational institutions responsible for the training of non–professional nurses should have flexible programmes to enhance access.

KEYWORDS: Continuing Formal Education; Continuing Education; Nurses; Motivational Factors, Non - Professional Nurses; Continuing Professional Development.

Edith Buamah Agyepong (MPhil, BSc. Nursing, RGN)
Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei (PhD)
Adzo Kwashie (PhD Candidate, MPhil)

Determinants of Contraceptive U Women of Reproductive Age in A in the Western Region of Ghana.


Contraceptive use is an important intervention in reducing unplanned pregnancies and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study investigates the knowledge of contraceptive use, identify the barriers of contraceptive use, and determine the predictors of contraceptive use among women in a peri-urban community in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 189 women of childbearing age was sampled in a peri-urban community in Ghana. Data were collected with questionnaires and analyzed using chi-square and binary logistic regression. The result shows that more than half of the participants ( 63.6% (n = 56) of contraceptive users knew seven to twelve types of contraceptives, whereas 46.6% of non-contraceptive users indicated they knew seven to twelve types of contraceptives. Knowledge of the types and uses of contraceptive was significantly associated with contraceptive usage. Spousal consent, adverse effects, lack of knowledge about the benefits and religion were the main barriers to contraceptive use. There was a strong association between marital status, income, age and contraceptive use among women (p<0.05). Women with no children and women with one to two children were 7 times (95%CI, 2.00, 27.78) more likely to use contraceptives.  Those with more than three children were 11 times (95%CI 2.34, 54.87) more likely to use contraceptives. Although the women knew about the uses and types of contraceptives, utilisation was low. Parity was high among the factors that predicted the non-usage of contraceptives among women. The findings of this study call for a comprehensive education on contraceptives at various levels of the health delivery system.

KEYWORDS: Contraceptives; Knowledge; Utilization; Barriers; Women; Peri-urban community in Ghana.

Nancy Innocentia Ebu (PhD, MN, MPH, BSN, SRN, FWACN, FFGCNM)
Doreen Owusu Boateng (BSN, RN)
Kingsley Asare Pereko (PhD)
Thomas Hormenu (PhD)

Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Caesarean Section and their Preferred Mode of Delivery in Northern Ghana


In maternal health, though caesarean section (CS) has contributed significantly to reducing maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, there are still concerns about women’s knowledge on caesarean section. Although there is an accelerating rate of caesarean section in both developed and developing countries, some recent studies have insinuated that African women have an aversion for caesarean section. Therefore, the study aimed to assess pregnant women’s knowledge towards caesarean section at the Tamale Teaching Hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February to April 2017 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The simple random sampling method was adopted in recruiting 360 pregnant women. The Chi square test was used to determine the associations between women’s demographics and their knowledge of caesarean section. Thirty-two percent (32%) of respondents had good knowledge regarding caesarean section, 48% and 20% had fair and poor knowledge on the procedure respectively. There was significant association between knowledge on caesarean section and respondents’ characteristics (education p=0.035, gravida p=0.012, and previous CS p=0.001). Even though there was a high awareness level (80%) among women who attended antenatal clinic, there was a low level of knowledge on caesarean section. Women’s preferred mode of delivery was influenced by their knowledge of the indications for CS and  the perceived consequences of  the procedure. Education should  target women without formal education and primigravida as well as men since they are the major decision makers in most families in developing countries.

KEYWORDS: Ghana; Infertility; Psychological threats; Social threats; Women

Richard Adongo Afaya (MPhil Student, BSN, DIP, RN)
Victoria Bam (PhD, RN, RM, RPHN)
Felix Apiribu (PhD Student, FGCNM, MPhil, MSc, BA, DIP, SRN)
Victor Atiah Agana (BSA, DIP. RN)
Agani Afaya (MSN, BSN, DIP. RN)

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Dietary Modification among Diabetic Patients: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study at Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ghana


Adequate knowledge, attitude, and practices are effective in providing baseline preventive measures in diabetes. This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients towards dietary modification. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Ejisu-Juaben municipality, Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used  to obtain  information such as socio-demographic and knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients towards dietary modification. In all, 200 diabetic participants were recruited. The majority of the participants (84.0%) were between the ages 40-60 years. Ninety-two (46.0%) of the participants correctly identified dietary modification as a way of adjusting to healthy eating practices. Forty percent (40.0%) of the participants knew that adjusting to dietary modification help maintain blood sugar to a near normal. Most of the participants (43.0%) knew that non-compliance  to dietary modifications can  increase blood sugar  level. Eighty six (86.0%) of the patients knew that dietary modification could help control their diabetic complications. Most (89.0%) of the participants sometimes adhere to dietary modifications, 11.0% regularly adhere while 10.0% do not adhere to dietary modifications. Diabetic patients had adequate knowledge about their disease  conditions  but had  poor  attitude and practice towards dietary modifications. Frequent public health and hospital-based education on adjusting to dietary modifications is required.

KEYWORDS: Attitude; Diabetic Mellitus; Dietary Modification; Knowledge; Practices

Yaa Obirikorang (MPhil, BSc, RGN)
Christian Obirikorang (PhD. BSc)
Enoch Odame Anto (MPhil, BSc)
Emmanuel Acheampong (MPhil, BSc)
Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu (MPhil, BSc)
Fatima Sani Dange (BSc, RGN) Nuhu Abdulbasir (BSc, RGN) Bright Amankwaa (MPhil, BSc)

Maternal Satisfaction with Labour at the University of Ghana Hospital Accra: A Cross Sectional Survey


Information on maternal experience with institutional birth is dearth in Ghana, and the few studies on this subject did not employ standardized internationally validated questionnaires/instruments. Using a structured questionnaire including a modified-Women’s  Views  of  Birth  Labour  Satisfaction  Questionnaire  four (WOMBLSQ4), this study seeks to evaluate women’s birth experience with care during labour, birth, and lying-in period, at the University of Ghana Hospital in Accra. Using a quantitative cross-sectional study approach, 50 puerperal women in the lying-in ward and those seeking postnatal care less than three months after delivery at the University of Ghana Hospital were selected. A structured questionnaire comprising, amongst others, the internationally validated Women’s Views of Birth Labour Satisfaction Questionnaire fourth edition (WOMBLSQ4) was administered to respondents. In general, the maternal satisfaction with birth experience at the University of Ghana Hospital was high, with 52% and 38% of mothers rating their overall experience as excellent and good respectively. However, 20% of the participants expressed dissatisfaction with their overall birth experience at the health facility. Partner support received the highest negative rating on the birth experience accounting for 18% followed by continuity of care where 16% of the respondents reported not knowing their caregivers at the time of delivery. Though positive maternal birth experience among respondents was high, steps need to be taken to reduce the gaps in care identified by this study.

KEYWORDS: maternal experience; birth experience; maternal satisfaction; puerperal; labour.

Decker Sheila (BSc, RM) 1
Joanne Chiwaula(MSc RN CNM)
Veronica Millicent Dzomeku (PhD, MPhil, BA, RM, RN)
Emmanuel Nakua (MSc, BSc)
Bemah Adwoa Bonsu (MPhil, BSc, RN)

Menopause as a Rite of Passage: Exploring the Experience and Management among Women in Walewale in the Northern Region of Ghana


Menopause is a natural process that every woman at a particular point in time experiences. Menopausal experience comes with certain symptoms some of which appear stressful. This study sought to understand the experiences and management of menopause in Walewale in northern Ghana. The study design was qualitative, and the technique of data collection was an in-depth interview. Fifteen participants within  the menopausal age were selected  for  the study using the purposive sampling technique. The data was audio recorded and later transcribed for analysis, using content analysis. The majority of the participants understood menopause as a natural process. However, some of them conceptualized it as a disease. Participants, in recounting their individual account of menopausal symptoms, espoused varying degree of experiences including hot flushes, sexual disinterest, memory problems, mood swings, headaches, muscles and joint pain and aches, and abdominal pains. The management was individualized but some claimed they saw the symptoms as normal occurrences. Others stated that they tried remedies like self-medication, exercise, and consumption of good diet as part of their management strategies. Based on the above, it is important that public enlightenment and community-based interventions be undertaken to increase women's awareness regarding menopause. 

KEYWORDS: Menopause; Experiences; Management; Qualitative study; Symptoms.

Jaliu Abubakari (MPhil, BSc)
Adadow Yidana (PhD, MSc, BA)
Shamsu-Deen Ziblim (PhD, MPhil, BA)

Stress and Coping Strategies among Nurse Managers at Three District Hospitals in the Eastern Region of Ghana


Nurses have been found to experience high levels of stress which contributes to health challenges and decreases their efficiency. Nurse managers may experience higher levels of stress due to their complex and multi-faceted roles and responsibilities. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional approach was used to identify how nurse managers experience stress and strategies used  to  reduce stress. Three hospitals were randomly selected, and 45 nurse managers were also selected using disproportionate stratified sampling technique. Simple random sampling was employed to select 15 nurse managers from each hospital. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection, and the data was analyzed using both inferential and descriptive statistics to describe the sample and determine factors that influence stress. The study revealed that common causes of stress among nurse managers are  lack of break period during shifts  (95.6%), staff shortage (97.8%), inadequate support from management (93.3%), poor working conditions (91.1%) and inadequate resources (91.1%). The major predictor of stress among nurse managers  is  the  type of unit (F = 9.546, p <  .05, R2 =  .205). Headache (78.3%), backache (73.9%) and fatigue (82.6%) are the major physical stress experienced by nurse managers. Frustration (84.8%) is the major emotional stress experienced by nurse managers and the major type of psychological stress experienced by nurse managers is lack of concentration (67.4%). The major coping strategies of stress among nurse managers are expression of feelings instead of bottling them up (91.1%), accepting the things one cannot change (88.9%) and time management (86.7%) whereas eating excessively is the least mechanism (8.9%) used to cope with stress. It is recommended that nurse managers should mature in age, practice, knowledge and experience to cope better with the challenges that confront their position. Nurse managers should also take intermittent breaks during shifts, and hospitals.

KEYWORDS: Ghana; Infertility; Psychological threats; Social threats; Women

Adelaide Maria Ansah Ofei (PhD, MPhil, MBA, BA, RM, SRN, WACN, FGCNM)
Atswei Adzo Kwashie (PhD candidate, MPhil, BA, SRN, WACN, FGCNM)
Ernestina Asiedua (PhD candidate, MPhil, BA, SRN, RM, WACN, FGCNM)
Nana Serwaa Twum Duodu (BSc, Dip. RGN)
Alfred Nene Akotiah (MBA, BA)

The Effects of Stigma on Mental Health Nurses: A study at Ankaful Psychiatric Hospital


Society’s perception of the causes of mental disorder is one of the factors that influence how thementally ill is treated. Stigma affects not only people with mental illnesses but nurses and other professionals working with individuals diagnosed with mental illness. This study assessed the effect of stigma on mental health nurses. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for this study, and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 101 mental health nurses. Data was analyzed and summarized descriptively using frequency tables and graphs. An inferential analysis was conducted by Pearson Product Moment of correlation and Independent sample t test. The results show that the respondents perceive stigma to stem largely from the society. Females reported a higher level of stigma and discrimination from the general public than males. The majority of the participants view stigma as discrimination. Public education and expansion of community care are important measures to reduce the effects of stigma and discrimination.

KEYWORDS: Stigma; mental illness; mental health nurses; help seeking behavior.

Sampson Opoku Agyemang (BSc, BA, RMN)
Jerry Paul Ninnoni (PhD, MBA, RMN)



An International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery is an official journal of the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Ghana. The journal is aimed at providing a credible peer-reviewed medium for nurses and midwives and other health related researchers to share their research and other professional works. It is an international journal published online and in print by-annually.

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