Volume 3 Number 1

This edition which has 6 articles on topics such as; Healthcare Service Preferences, Spinal Anaesthesia Satisfaction, Exclusive Breastfeeding, Abuses in Private Home Care, Treatment System for Alcoholics, and Perceptions of Clinical Skills Labs.

Volume 3 Number 1

These articles highlights various health issues of concern about the education, training and practice of nursing and midwifery in Ghana

Availability and Preference for Healthcare Services in Rural Ghana: A Study at the Bole District of the Northern Region


Healthcare access is an essential component of human development; but countless people around the world, especially in developing countries, do not have access to healthcare, as they require. Consequently, the WHO and other actors in the healthcare area are adopting strategies to promote Universal Health Coverage, especially in lower and middle-income countries such as Ghana. The study assessed the availability of both Orthodox and Alternative healthcare facilities in the Bole District of the Northern Region of Ghana and examined the community members’ preference for the two healthcare systems. The study employed quantitative research designs. Quantitative data were collected using questionnaires. A total of 435 purposively selected individuals participated in the study. A Chi-square test of independence was used to analyze the quantitative data, while the qualitative data were categorized into themes and analyzed. The study revealed the existence of 22 Orthodox (91.7%) and 2 Alternative Healthcare (8.3%) facilities in the Bole District. The majority of respondents (55%) prefer accessing Orthodox Healthcare relative to Alternative Healthcare, whereas the remaining 45% prefer Alternative healthcare to Orthodox Healthcare. Age and educational level correlated significantly with preference for type of healthcare facility. Findings of the qualitative data supported the results of the quantitative data. It is recommended that orthodox healthcare facilities be made more available in rural communities and safe integration of both systems should be explored so as to improve accessibility of healthcare with the aim of meeting universal health coverage goals for the country

KEYWORDS: Access to health, Alternative Healthcare, Orthodox Healthcare, Preference, Utilization, Availability.

Moses Abile (MPhil, RN)
Lily Yarney (PhD)

Maternal Satisfaction in receiving Spinal Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section: Cross-sectional survey at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana


Spinal anaesthesia is the only type of anaesthesia that allows maximum patient participation, which is an appropriate module to use for the assessment of patient satisfaction since the patient will have full knowledge of what has transpired. This study assessed the level of satisfaction of mothers given spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of 171 mothers who underwent spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section at the Tamale Teaching Hospital was recruited for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered within 24 hours after caesarean section at the postnatal unit. The results revealed a high level of satisfaction among mothers. Pain control (90.1%), communication by anaesthetists (93.0%) and patient care (89.5%) were cited by mothers as the reasons for the high level of satisfaction. Even though the study observed a high level of satisfaction by mothers who received spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section, the study concludes that adequate measures should be taken to sustain patients’ level of satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Maternal Satisfaction; Spinal Anaesthesia; Caesarean Section

Alirimbey Alhaji Elvis (Bsc, RN)
Emmanuel Amangbey (MSc, BA)

Family Related Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding in Rural Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Analysis


Exclusive breastfeeding has been recognised as an important public health concern for the primary prevention of child morbidity and mortality. Consequently, the WHO and UNICEF have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months after delivery, followed by the introduction of complementary foods and continued breastfeeding for 24 months or more. Even so, exclusive breastfeeding is not adequately practised in Ghana. This study sought to understand and explain the family influence on exclusive breastfeeding practices in rural northern Ghana. An exploratory qualitative research design was used to explore the central phenomenon of breastfeeding in rural northern Ghana. Individual interviews were conducted. The participants were 25 and included breastfeeding mothers, paternal grandmothers, paternal grandfathers, fathers of babies, traditional birth attendants, and a breastfeeding support group leader. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analysed using content analysis. Four main themes emerged in relation to the forms of family influences on exclusive breastfeeding: family knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding; primary and secondary participants in child care; family beliefs and practices; and learning to breastfeed. It emerged that infant feeding and care is a family responsibility rather than being individually centred. A family’s knowledge, belief systems, and way of participation in infant care heavily influence a woman’s ability to practise and sustain exclusive breastfeeding. The implication is that at any point in time, family players should be considered in any campaign on exclusive breastfeeding.

KEYWORDS: Exclusive breastfeeding, Family, Ghana, Influence, Rural community

Shamsu-Deen Ziblim (PhD)
AdadowYidana (PhD)
Iddrisu Seidu (MSC Public Health)

Elder Abuse in A Private Home Care and A Public Health Facility in Ghana


The elderly receiving care in healthcare settings are particularly vulnerable to abuse because most suffer from several chronic diseases that lead to limitations in their functioning, and some are also dependent on their caregivers. In addition, many are unable to report abuse because they are fearful that reporting may lead to retaliation, which may negatively affect their care. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse amongst aged persons seeking care at a private nursing home and a public health facility in Ghana. Results showed that, except for sexual abuse, all four types of abuse were experienced by aged persons in varying frequencies at the healthcare facilities. The prevalence of self-reported abuse showed that 3/30 (10%) and 23/80 (28.8%) aged persons from the Private facility and Public facility were being abused. The prevalent abusers of the aged persons were their relatives, 19/26 (25.8%), nurses, 4/26 (9.2%) and children, 3/23 (3.8%). The healthcare facility was significantly associated with the experience of elder abuse ( P=0.039). The findings of this study strengthen the case for national action to expand efforts in researching into supporting and preventing victims of elder abuse. The advocacy for the need for multidisciplinary professionals for the care of the elderly is essential.

KEYWORDS: Physical abuse; Psychological abuse; Neglect; Sexual abuse; Financial fraud

Reginald Arthur-Mensah Jnr (MPhil Clinical Microbiology, BSc. Biological Sciences)
Theodora Shieley Amarh (BSc. Nursing)
Paa Kofi Adu-Gyamfi Tawiah (MPhil Pharmacology, BSc. Nursing)
Abigail Agartha Kyei (DHA, MPH, BA Nursing)

Structural Elements of Integrated Treatment System for Alcoholic Patients in Two Rehabilitation Centres in Ghana


In Ghana, much attention has been given to the care and treatment of medical-surgical conditions other than mental health issues and the treatment of drug addiction. The predominant understanding is that alcohol/drug addiction or abuse is a chronic disorder on a par with other chronic conditions such as diabetes and asthma. This research study was conducted on the basis of making additions to existing scientific knowledge on rehabilitation of patients diagnosed with alcohol/drug abuse and how treatment helped in early recovery. It is a qualitative research with exploratory descriptive design. The study selected two (2) major rehabilitation centres in the Kumasi Metropolis namely: Cheshire Rehabilitation Centre and Remar Rehabilitation Centre. A total of twenty-eight (28) participants were selected for the study. sSixteen (16) patients were selected purposively for the study. Thus, eight (8) rehabilitants were chosen from each centre. The study also sampled eight (8) relatives of patients from both homes and two (2) care givers from each centre who also undertook the interview voluntarily using a semi-structured interview guide. Audiotaped interviews were conducted with the participants at the two rehabilitation centres. The data was transcribed and coded using grounded theory and conversation analysis. The data was managed with ATLAS.ti. The study revealed that, though both rehabilitation centres were doing their best, they were under-resourced both in qualified personnel and finances. Unavailability of prescribed medications too caused incessant relapse. The results confirmed the finding of other studies which showed that no rehabilitation physicians are identified in any of the rehabilitation facilities in Ghana.

KEYWORDS: Rehabilitation; Experiences; Under-resourced; Rehabilitants; Recovery; Ghana.

Sandra Fremah Asare (MSc, BSc)
Adwoa Bema Boamah Mensah (PhD)
Ofeibea Asare (MPH)

Student Nurses’ Perceptions of Clinical Skills Laboratory as a Learning Space in South Africa


The acquisition of quality clinical experience within a supportive and pedagogically regulated clinical learning environment is a major concern for both nurse educators and educational institutions. In nursing, the mastery of clinical skills is required to become a trained nurse. This study explored the undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of clinical skills laboratory as a learning space in higher education in South Africa. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Thirty-two (32) undergraduate nursing students, eight from each year group, were recruited from a selected university in South Africa for four focus group discussions. Data collection happened between June and November 2016. A thematic content analysis was used to give a narrative account of the findings. Four themes emerged from the data which include privacy on feedback, knowledgeable and accessible personnel, scheduling for access, and time limitation. Most students indicated that the learning environment was technologically competent in assisting them to link theory to practice before going to the ward to work on real patients. Some students, however, noted that access to the clinical skills laboratory needed improvement. Adequately retooling the clinical skills laboratory with regards to human resource will facilitate learning in that environment and will improve the quality of practical training nursing students receive.

KEYWORDS: clinical skills laboratory; learning environment; nursing students

Luke Laari (PhD, MN, Hons Nursing Education, BSc Nursing, RGN)
Barbara M. Dube (PhD, MN, RN)



An International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery is an official journal of the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Ghana. The journal is aimed at providing a credible peer-reviewed medium for nurses and midwives and other health related researchers to share their research and other professional works. It is an international journal published online and in print by-annually.

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